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Minerals and mineralogy 

A mineral is a substance that is naturally obtained from a mine, with a solid and inorganic structure and consisting of regular atoms. Every mineral has a fixed chemical composition. Of course, in some minerals, the ratio of some elements may change. Minerals are found in the composition of rocks in the earth’s crust. Physically and chemically, these materials are natural and homogeneous bodies that are formed almost in the form of crystals or at least crystalline masses containing fine and fine to coarse particles. Kani is actually derived from a Persian word called kan, which is called mine in Arabic.

Properties of minerals

Minerals are homogeneous; That is, the physical and chemical characteristics of all their constituent particles are the same. For example, if we break a piece of halite or table salt into very small pieces, all the particles obtained have a salty taste, dissolve easily in water, and show other properties of salt. Minerals are solid and crystalline; That is, their constituent particles are placed together based on a certain order and law; So, all the outer surfaces of a mineral are flat. The crystalline and regular shape of minerals comes from the arrangement of their internal atoms and molecules. At first, minerals were used as they were obtained from the earth’s crust. Some of these minerals, which had delicate and stable crystals against erosion, were used as makeup after polishing and cutting. We call these minerals precious stones or jewels. Diamonds, turquoise, sapphires, emeralds, emeralds, lapis lazuli, agates and pearls are among the most important precious minerals. Due to the chemical homogeneity of these materials, their composition can be shown by the formula. To introduce minerals, in addition to their formula, all physical properties such as optical properties, electrical properties, resistance, hardness, and finally crystallographic properties are also examined.


The raw materials needed to make cars, planes, buildings and other metal parts or structures are supplied through minerals containing metal elements. In addition, pharmaceuticals (chemicals), agricultural fertilizers and some foods are also produced by minerals. Needless to say, the salt you use almost every day in your food is a type of mineral. The widespread use of these materials doubles the importance of studying them (mineralogy). The Greeks were the first people who investigated the scientific aspect of minerals, such as Thales of Malta, who pointed out the amber properties of minerals in 485 BC. Around six thousand years BC, the ancient Egyptians mined turquoise in the Sinai desert because of its beautiful color.Stone Age people use flint, which has a sharp fracture surface, as a knife and bayonet, to carve wood and prepare a sharp bow tip. The end of the Stone Age ended with the preparation of bronze or bronze, which was the result of various experiences of alloyed copper and tin. During the Bronze Age, man accumulated centuries of experience until he finally succeeded in discovering and producing iron around 1000 BC. According to another story, about 2,700 years ago, the bronze age began, and in this age, humans made their tools from this alloy. Around 3000 BC, the Egyptians made glass by melting silica. Also, centuries before Christ, the Chinese made Chinese tools from kaolin fossils. Throughout history, a lot of information has been obtained regarding the formation, gender, structure and other properties of minerals.

  • Coarse crystal minerals
  • Microcrystalline minerals
  • Hidden Crystal Minerals

Coarse crystal minerals can be seen with the eye, fine crystal minerals with a microscope, and hidden crystal minerals with X-rays.

Classification of minerals according to chemical properties:

  • Silicate minerals
  • Non-silicate minerals


Countless sources have been classified and written based on the structure and chemistry of minerals, today new and more practical findings based on microscopic devices and advanced analysis have their own place and fans. Mineralogy has diverse and wide uses in various sciences such as sedimentology, geochemical and geophysical discoveries, medical geology, engineering geology, materials engineering, mining engineering, gemology and environment. For example, in terms of gemology, Kavan Gems pay special attention to every stone they see in front of them, because they know that thousands of minerals such as epidote, amethyst, opal, andalusite, or types of garnet and tourmaline have good export and gemological value in today’s world. The purpose of soil mineralogy is to investigate and understand the mineral phase of the soil, which constitutes about 90% of the solid volume of mineral soils. This scientific field covers a wide range of subjects, including:
۱) Origin and distribution of soil minerals
۲) Their chemical composition and crystallographic properties
۳) Stability, transformations and interactions of soil minerals in natural environments
۴) Their effect on physical and chemical properties of soil and regulation of soil and water chemistry

Formation process

The physico-chemical properties of soil minerals that organize these processes are largely determined by the nature of secondary mineral phases that are formed from the decomposition of primary silicate minerals and inherited from parent materials during weathering. Secondary minerals such as phyllosilicates and metal oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides are usually dominant in the clay part (less than 2 micrometers) of the soil, and these minerals are often formed in developed soils and soils formed in humid and temperate or warmer regions. have been, exist Secondary minerals usually have small particle size, high specific surface area, and negative surface charge, and these colloidal properties give them an extraordinary ability to participate in many surface reactions (such as ion exchange, adsorption, etc.).In addition to their effects on soil behavior, clay minerals are useful as paper coatings, extenders in paints, plastics, and rubbers, as components of drilling fluids (for oil / gas exploration), and as catalysts used in the petroleum industry, as pigments. Due to the great importance of clay minerals for industry, agriculture and the environment, and due to the abundance and unique properties of the surface reaction they give to soil and sediments, many soil mineralogy studies specifically include clay mineralogy. Soil mineralogical composition mainly depends on the nature of the parent material, the age and stability of the geomorphic surface, and the intensity of pedochemical weathering. Clay fractions of soil are very complex polymineralic mixtures, often consisting of more than 10 or 15 different species, each of which has considerable diversity. Most of the science of soil mineralogy focuses on the formation and properties of secondary minerals or clay minerals. Clay minerals are not only the most reactive soil mineral components that mainly affect soil behaviors and properties, but also show a high degree of compositional and structural diversity resulting from intense pedogenic weathering. This diversity makes it very difficult to identify and quantify mineral strings, especially clay mineral assemblages. However, soil mineralogy is increasingly shifting its focus to environmental problems, and computer modeling of surface reactions and colloidal behavior at the atomic and molecular levels.

In Iran:

Iran has a high potential in terms of minerals, gems and various minerals. Getting to know minerals, stones, their properties and their use will help to understand the eternal power of God.

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